Changes to the FDI Policy – A New Lease of Life to the Indian Economy

India opened up its economy in 1991 and has since considerably eased foreign direct investment (FDI) norms across various sectors of the economy, with a viewpoint of liberalizing the FDI regime in the country. Fast forward to 2019 and the current government, in order to further boost the economy and FDI inflows, has approved certain amendments to the existing FDI policy ("FDI Policy") of the country.
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It has been well established that proceedings under Section 34 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 (“the Act”) are summary in nature.The scope of enquiry in any proceedings under Section 34 of the Act has been restricted to consider whether any of the grounds mentioned in Section 34(2) or Section 13(5) or Section 16(6) are made out to set aside the award, the grounds for which are specific.
The Delhi High Court recently adjudicated on the issue of whether generic companies can export patented products for experimental purpose, in an expansive interpretation of Section 107A of the Indian Patents Act, 1970 (the ‘Act’). Section 107A, which relates to what is referred to as ‘the Bolar Provision’, was introduced via the Patents Act (Second Amendment) Bill, 1999. The provision sought to ensure the prompt availability of patented products, particularly generic drugs, immediately after the expiry of the patent term.
Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) are key drivers of economic growth, and the Government of India has been especially cognizant of their demands and concerns, by supporting and encouraging startups and MSMEs through various schemes and incentives introduced from time to time.
It is a fairly reasonable assumption to make that the famous or rather infamous relationship between law and morality would not apply to the commercial world of contractual arrangements. However, this is where morality clauses rear their heads to question that presumption. The morals or the morality clause, is a contractual provision in a contract or agreement that puts a restriction on certain behaviour emanating not from that person's commercial identity but from their personal life. These clauses tend to veer towards prohibiting behaviour that is frowned upon in society.
New rules for patent filing were introduced in India recently, which have made the application process considerably easier, such as waiving the requirement for filing originals, allowing applicants such as women and small enterprises to apply for expedited examination, and removing the transmittal fees for international applications. The Patent (Amendment) Rules 2019 came into force on September 17, 2019.
An application for a patent can be filed by a ‘true and first inventor’, or the inventor’s assignee. In cases where the application is filed by the assignee, the assignee is required to submit a ‘proof of right’, as per Section 7(2) of the Patents Act, 1970 (the “Act”).
An application for a patent can be filed by a ‘true and first inventor’, or the inventor’s assignee. In cases where the application is filed by the assignee, the assignee is required to submit a ‘proof of right’, as per Section 7(2) of the Patents Act, 1970 (the “Act”).
The scope of public internet that started back in the 1980s has grown over the decades. It allows a telecom subscriber to access almost all the services required for information, education and entertainment etc. It has altogether redefined the conventional marketplace. Even personalized services, such as a taxi ride can be accessed on a person’s fingertips. This growth has also brought about a fundamental shift in other spheres including telecom and TV. Earlier, networks used to be built around specific applications, say voice, internet or Pay TV. Voice, message and video content have now been reduced to mere bytes.There has been a rapid proliferation of voice, video and Over-the-top ("OTT") application services being delivered over networks.
The Government of India has proposed a slew of amendments to the rules governing Geographical Indications (GIs), particularly with regard to the rights of authorised users under the law. On September 16, 2019, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry (Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, or DPIIT) issued draft rules, which propose various amendments to the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) (Amendment) Rules, 1999.
In a major decision that is likely to impact evergreening of pharmaceutical patents in India, the Delhi High Court vacated interim injunctions granted to AstraZeneca, a big pharma multinational, against three generics manufacturers, Micro Labs, Natco Pharma, and Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories. The case involved allegations of infringement of AstraZeneca’s three patents, for offering a generic version of AstraZeneca’s drug-TICAGRELOR for sale under the brand name BRILINTA.
Contractual lease provisions are freely negotiable in India. In the absence of a contract to the contrary, the Transfer of Property Act 1882 ("TOPA") provides for certain rights and liabilities which govern the relationship between the landlord and the lessee.A lease deed is typically drafted by the landlord and thus, may contain several conditions that favour the landlord. It is however important to ensure that an effective commercial lease deed protects the rights of the lessee as well.
It has been well established that consent from parties is a prerequisite to an arbitration.This characteristic of an arbitration ensures that it is only the parties to an arbitration agreement that would be the parties between who arbitration shall commence against. However, over time we have seen different doctrines or legal theories developed such as the group of companies’doctrine, the concept of agency, the reliance theory, that have been used to make a non-signatory a party to an arbitration.
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